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The soaring temperatures on the London Tube over the summer months have been a problem for some years now.

Hot Weather Affects the London Tube

Hot Weather Affects the London TubeThe soaring temperatures on the London Tube over the summer months have been a problem for some years now. A London Underground team has attempted to come up with some engineering solutions to the problem by creating a groundwater cooling system. The trial, which starts this summer, aims to make it cooler for passengers on platforms and will be tested at Victoria station which is so deep that it is effectively under water and pumps out 35 litres (eight gallons) a second, to stop it coming through the walls. The idea of the new system is to push the water through a network of pipes into heat exchange units on the platforms, which will suck in warm air and pump out cooler air. The heat could be used to power homes and offices above and this way the temperature will be brought down.But this is only a trial to be tested this year and it is far from being put into work as well as new trains with air cooling systems that are promised for Circle, District, Hammersmith and City and Metropolitan lines. Meanwhile the temperatures in the deepest tunnels, reach 30C (86F) in summer. These changes might affect the London Tube in a drastic way. Some of the Tube lines might be closed especially on the hot summer days. London Underground assures that there are no plans to close any Tube Lines during the summer but in the future years it might get to the point "where the underground will become literally intolerable and you could face the prospect of loss of life" as Mr Livingstone from LU advised.About 1,000 London Tube passengers were trapped for nearly two hours when three trains were held up in a tunnel. The Central Line closed after signal failures stopped the trains between Marble Arch and Lancaster Gate. The trains have been evacuated and three people were treated for the effects of heat.

Cheap Lambo Doors

Cheap Lambo Doors

Picture this. A sleek, fresh-out-of-the-showroom customized Pontiac Grand Am with the leather interior and 20 inch sparkling triangular-patterned rims gliding through the scene. Styling and profiling with an impeccable windshield, its as clean and spotless as Maxs taxicab in the hit movie Collateral. What additions can possibly be added to customize and highlight this perked-up car to its maximum potential? Look no further than cheap lambo doors to complement your machine.Cheap "lambo doors" , or scissor doors for the novices, provide a classy upgrade over your standard car door. These scissor doors open upwards instead of outward with a swinging motion, either by hand or with the press of a button. In order to modify your four-wheeler with "cheap lambo doors" , you have to remove certain parts like fenders and make way for hinges to install it. You can either remove parts or bolt cheap lambo doors in place of the old car door. Modifications can be done in car conversion shops and distributors for cheap lambo doors that specialize in customizing your vehicle with other accessories as well. You can also purchase Vertical Door Kits, an assembly system which allows you to install your cheap lambo doors yourself with a little technical know-how on the side.Cheap lambo doors are available far and wide. Keep in mind, you shell out money to pay for the modification and installation of your cheap lambo doors instead of paying for them in the physical sense. There are a variety of companies that design and create car conversion kits that bolt on to your car doors existing frame. Expect to pay in the range of $1500 to $3000 for a scissor door conversion kit to install. Usually the older the car model, the less you pay. Door conversion kits should be easy to install and consist of a superb design, durable material (usually steel), and A+ performance in opening and closing effortlessly without the slightest creak of a hinge. So go ahead, modify your Lincoln Aviator or Porsche Carrera with the slick essence of cheap lambo doors!

Torque Converter Operation

Torque Converter Operation

The torque converter is one of the least understood components in an automatic transmission equipped vehicle. I will attempt to explain what it does and how it does it.The "torque converter" has a few different functions.We first need to understand that there is no direct link between the crankshaft and the transmission input shaft (except in the case of a lock up style converter, but we'll talk about that later). This means that the first function of the converter is to connect the crankshaft and the input shaft so the engine can move the vehicle; this is accomplished through the utilization of a fluidic coupling effect.The torque converter also replaces the clutch that is required in a manual transmission; this is how an automatic transmission vehicle can come to a stop while still being in gear without stalling the engine.The torque converter also acts as a torque multiplier, or extra gear ratio, to help the car get moving from a stop. In modern day converters this theoretical ratio is anywhere between 2:1 and 3:1.Torque converters consist of 4 major components that we need to concern ourselves with for the purpose of explanation.The first component, which is the driving member, is called the impeller or "pump". It is connected directly to the inside of the converter housing and because the converter is bolted to the flexplate, it is turning anytime that the engine rotates.The next component, which is the output or driven member, is called the turbine. The transmission's input shaft is splined to it. The turbine is not physically connected to the to the converter housing and can rotate completely independently of it.The third component is the stator assembly; its function is to redirect the flow of fluid between the impeller and the turbine, which gives the torque multiplication effect from a standstill.The final component is the lock up clutch. At highway speeds this clutch can be applied and will provide a direct mechanical link between the crankshaft and input shaft, which will result in 100% efficiency between the engine and transmission. The application of this clutch is usually controlled by the vehicle's computer activating a solenoid in the transmission.Here's how it all works. For the sake of simplicity, I will use the common analogy of two fans which represent the impeller and the turbine. Let's say that we have two fans facing each other and we turn only one of them on- the other fan will soon begin to move.The first fan, which is powered, can be thought of as the impeller that is connected to the converter housing. The second fan- the "driven" fan can be likened to the turbine, which has the input shaft splined to it. If you were to hold the non-powered fan (the turbine) the powered one (the impeller) would still be able to move- this explains how you can pull to a stop without the engine stalling.Now imagine a third component placed in between the two, which would serve to alter the airflow and cause the powered fan to be able to drive the non-powered fan with a reduction of speed- but also with an increase of force (torque). This is essentially what the stator does.At a certain point (usually around 30-40 mph), the same speed can be reached between impeller and the turbine (our two fans). The stator, which is attached to a one way clutch, will now begin to turn in conjunction with the other two components and around 90% efficiency between the crank and the input shaft can be achieved.The remaining 10% slippage between the engine and transmission can be eliminated by connecting the input shaft to the crankshaft through the application of the lock up clutch that was mentioned before. This will tend to lug the engine, so the computer will only command this in higher gears and at highway speeds when there is very little engine load present. The main function of this clutch is to increase fuel efficiency and reduce the amount of heat that is generated by the torque converter.Another term that may be unfamiliar is that of a "high stall" torque converter. A "high stall" converter differs from a stock converter in the sense that the rpm is raised at which the internal converter components- the impeller, the stator and the turbine start to turn together, and hence, stop the torque multiplication phase and begin the coupling phase. The point at which engine rpm will stop climbing with the drive wheels held stationary and the throttle fully opened is referred to as "stall speed".The idea behind a higher stall torque converter is to allow the engine to rev more freely up to the point where the powerband begins, and therefore, enable the vehicle to accelerate from a stop under more power.This becomes increasingly important when an engine is modified. Engine modifications such as ported heads, bigger cams, bigger turbos (in some cases), bigger intakes, etc. tend to raise the point where the powerband begins. For best performance, the stall speed needs to be raised accordingly to work optimally in conjunction with the given vehicle alterations.In simple terms, for best performance, the stall speed should be raised at least to the point where the torque curve is heading towards its peak. As a rule of thumb, the stall speed should be set to match the rpm at which the engine is making at least 80% of its peak torque for a street driven vehicle.As you can imagine, a vehicle that can accelerate from a stop with 80% of its peak torque will easily outperform an otherwise identical vehicle that can only launch at 50% of its available torque.For a performance or "high stall" torque converter to produce maximum gains, it needs to be configured to the specific vehicle in which it will be installed.Factors such as engine torque and the rpm at which it is greatest, differential gear ratio, vehicle weight, camshaft design, compression ratio, type of induction- forced or naturally aspirated, and a host of other variables all need to be taken into consideration. Be aware that the "off the shelf" type performance torque converters sold by some manufacturers are very unlikely to be optimized for all vehicles and their unique requirements.

Decah Lambo Doors

Decah Lambo Doors

Describe the pinnacle of automobiles. Is the Mount Olympus of cars a Formula One race kart with a 900 horsepowered engine manufactured by Honda? Or do you want to downgrade and describe a $600,000 Lamborghini machine as the answer? What is one element or modification you can add to your vehicle to propel it closer to automobile nirvana? Look no further than adding eye catching decah lambo doors to your car.Decah "lambo doors" derive from the famed Lamborghini machine with its original upward swinging doors. Decah lambo doors move outward slightly, then upward to enter and exit your car with style. With the help of a decah vertical car conversion kit installed by car conversion professionals in as little as three hours, sweet swinging "decah lambo doors" can become reality for your vehicle. Dont worry, decah lambo doors will not jeopardize other vehicle parts or affect the finish on your car. A cursory glance at your car will not reveal the presence of your decah lambo doors without opening it, allowing a subtle style capable of providing a sweet surprise for the unsuspecting car enthusiast.Decah lambo doors can be installed by body shops and car conversion kit distributors. Give your vehicle the aura of class by purchasing a standard kit ranging in the $1500 range or modify highly regarded and elite cars such as the Porsche and Corvette with more expensive decah lambo doors kits starting at $3000. Have it installed by professionals or do it yourself easier bolt on applications are available which can be directly shipped to you. When buying these illustrious pivotal assembly systems for your decah lambo doors, keep in mind just how much youre improving the overall look and feel of your car. What would you prefer: a standard four door Volkswagen Passat with no modifications or a Honda Civic with 18 inch spinning silver rims and classic [*_*]? Enough said!

Tips For Buying A Used Car And Avoiding A Lemon

Do some homework before you start shopping for a used vehicle. Think about what your needs are, what your driving habits are, and what your budget is. You can learn about vehicle models, options, and prices by reading dealership ads in the newspaper as well as reading the classifieds. There is also a host of information about used cars on the Internet. Enter the words USED CAR as keywords for searching and you will find information such as how to buy a used car, how to conduct a pre-purchase inspection, ads for cars available for sale, as well as other information. Your local library and book stores are another source of good information. They have publications that compare car models, options, and costs; as well as offer information about frequency-of-repair records, safety tests, and mileage. Once you've narrowed your car choices, research the frequency of repair and the maintenance costs on those models in auto-related consumer magazines. For information on recalls, contact The U.S. Department of Transportation's Auto Safety Hotline at 1-800-424-9393.When you find a vehicle you are seriously interested in, considering using one of the vehicle history services available online to find out what that vehicles history is. Some of the services available include an odometer check to help you make sure the mileage on the vehicle is accurate; checking the registration to find out if the vehicle was a rental, a lease, private party, or fleet vehicle; a title check; as well as finding out if the vehicle is a lemon, was in a major accident, was a salvage vehicle, or was ever reported stolen. There is typically a fee for these services, but spending a little money to find out the exact history of the vehicle can save you serious money and headaches down the road. In order to use one of these services, you will need the VIN from the vehicle. Enter the keywords VEHICLE HISTORY in an Internet search engine such as Google or Yahoo. It will yield results for several organizations that offer these services such as http://www.carfax.com and http://www.autocheck.com For financing you have two choices. One is to pay in full at the time of purchase. The other option is to finance over time. If you finance, the total cost of the vehicle increases because you are also paying for the cost of credit which includes interest and other loan costs. If you are going to finance, consider how much money you can put down on the car, your monthly payment, the length of the loan, and the annual percentage rate. Keep in mind that annual percentage rates are typically higher on used vehicles. The loan period is typically shorter on a used vehicle as well. Dealers and lenders offer a variety of loan terms and payments schedules. Shop around. Compare offers. Negotiate the best deal you can. Be very careful about advertisements that offer financing to first time buyers and to people with bad credit. They typically require a big down payment and have a high annual percentage interest rate. If you agree to financing that carries a high interest rate, you might be taking a big risk. If you decide to sell the car before the loan is paid in full, the amount you receive from the sale of the vehicle may be far less than the amount you need to pay off the loan. If the car is repossessed or declared a total loss because of an accident, you could be obligated to pay a considerable amount to repay the loan even after the proceeds from the sale of the car or the insurance payment have been deducted. If you decide to finance, make sure you understand the following aspects of the loan agreement before you sign any documents:1) the exact price you are paying for the vehicle, not just what the monthly payments are2) the amount of your finance charges (the exact dollar around the credit will cost you)3) the annual percentage rate (APR)4) the number of monthly payments and the amount of each monthly payment5) the total cost of the vehicle (including tax, title, registration, finance costs, etc.)Used cars are sold through numerous types of outlets: franchise dealers, independent dealers, rental car companies, leasing companies, used car superstores, private party sales and the Internet. Check with family and friends for recommendations on where to buy a vehicle. It is also a good idea to call your local Better Business Bureau and/or the State Attorney General office to find out if any unresolved complaints are on file about a particular dealer before you decide to do business with them. There is a lot of hype in ads you will see. Some dealers are attracting customers with no-haggle prices, factory certified used cars and better warranties. Consider the dealers reputation when evaluating these ads. By law, dealers are not required to give used car buyers a three day right to cancel. The right to return a car in a few days for a refund exists only if the dealer grants this privilege to buyers. Before you purchase from a dealer, ask about the return policy. Get the return policy in writing and read it carefully to be sure you understand it. The Federal Trade Commission's Used Car Rule requires dealers to post a Buyers Guide in every used car they offer for sale. This includes light-duty vans, light-duty trucks, demonstrators, and program cars.Demonstrator vehicles are new vehicles that have not been owned, leased, or used as rentals, but they have been driven by the dealer staff. Program cars are low-mileage, current-model-year vehicles returned from short-term leases or rentals. Buyers Guides do not have to be posted on motorcycles and most recreational vehicles. Anyone who sells less than six cars a year does not have to post a Buyers Guide.The Buyers Guide must tell you the following: 1) whether the vehicle is being sold as is" or with a warranty2) what percentage of the repair costs a dealer will pay under the warranty3) that spoken promises are difficult to enforce4) to get all promises in writing5) to keep the Buyer's Guide for reference after the sale6) the major mechanical and electrical systems on the car, including some of themajor problems you should look out for7) to ask to have the car inspected by an independent mechanic before you buy.When you buy a used car from a dealer, get the original Buyers Guide that was posted in the vehicle, or a copy. The Guide has to reflect any negotiated changes in the warranty coverage. It also becomes part of your sales contract and overrides any contrary provisions. For example, ifthe Buyers Guide says the car comes with a warranty and the contract says the car is sold "as is," the dealer must give you the warranty described in the Guide. When the dealer offers a vehicle "as is," the box next to the "As Is - No Warranty" disclosure on the Buyers Guide must bechecked. If the box is checked but the dealer promises to repair the vehicle or cancel the sale if you're not satisfied, make sure the promise is written on the Buyers Guide. Some states, do not allow as is sales for many used vehicles and some states require different disclosures than those on the Buyers Guide. Check with you state Attorney General office to find out what the laws are in your state.

What Is E85 Ethanol And How Is It Made?

With gasoline prices rising higher and higher, with no relief in sight, consumers are becoming more aware of and more interested in alternative fuel sources. One of those viable fuel sources is E85 ethanol. These days, there is quite a bit of talk about this fuel, and why shouldnt there be? After all, it costs close to thirty five percent less than gasoline and is quickly becoming a preferred choice for motorists at the pump stations. E85 ethanol is already widely used in Brazil with about 90 percent of Brazils vehicles able to use E85 ethanol. Although a much lower percentage of vehicles in the United States are flexible fuel vehicles, and therefore able to burn E85 ethanol, it is quickly gainer favor.What is E 85 Ethanol?When 15 percent of leaded gasoline is combined with eighty five percent of ethanol, the result is the low-cost E85 ethanol fuel. It is an alcohol-based fuel that can be produced from employing the use of two methods. The first source of production involves the fermenting and distilling of starch-like feedstock. They include corn, barley, and wheat. The next method, which is referred as bio-ethanol, involves extraction from trees and grasses.Although the price of the Ethanol E85 may be foremost on consumers minds, it also gets the nod from earth activists because it is an environmentally friendly product. It burns clean and its key ingredient source is renewable. Ethanol E85 also lessens the need for imported crude oil because it is locally produced, and is also known for increasing the octane rating in fuel while decreasing the harmful emissions caused by gasoline. If you are consciously trying to use less gasoline because you are aware of toxins it releases into our air think about this: if you convert to a "flexible fuel vehicle" and you burn E85 in that vehicle you will automatically be using 85 percent less gasoline that you previously had because 85 percent of your fuel is now ethanol and only 15 percent is gasoline.Ethanol E85 will run well in flexible fuel vehicles like those manufactured by Daimler Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Isuzu and Nissan to name a few. But, if you dont own a vehicle by one of the above-mentioned manufacturers, you need not fear. Some people are not aware that many other cars manufactured today are Ethanol E85 compatible. It is best to find out from your car dealer if you have a flexible fuel vehicle.How is E85 Ethanol Made?The method for producing Ethanol E85 is long and complex. The maker has to first extract sugar from biological feedstock in order to begin the process. Corn is the leading ingredient in Ethanol E85 gas in the United States. In Brazil, sugar cane is the leading ingredient in ethanol. The starch in these crops can easily be converted into sugar. Sugar for this fuel can also be extracted from cellulose, which is a sugar based ingredient found in trees and grasses.Once the feedstock is collected, it goes through a grinding process to extract the sugar. Sugar fed into microbes quickly produces ethanol and carbon dioxide, which is purified to get the ethanol to the right consistency.There is another method of manufacturing Ethanol E85 oil or grain alcohol, as it is also known, and this is through a wet-milling process. This is also the method that large-scale manufacturers use when producing high-fructose corn sweetener.Ethanol E85 is an innovative and renewable resource with many positive characteristics, making it one of the leading topics of discussion for those looking to help the earth and looking to keep a few extra bucks in their wallet. Although E85 is currently only available at approximately 600 pumps in the United States, that number is expected to grow significantly in the next few years.

Summary

The soaring temperatures on the London Tube over the summer months have been a problem for some years now.